Fractional excretion of electrolytes and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as early biomarkers of acute kidney injury in dogs with acute pancreatitis

J Small Anim Pract. 2023 Aug;64(8):507-512. doi: 10.1111/jsap.13616. Epub 2023 May 25.


Objectives: To determine if fractional excretion of urinary electrolytes and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin could detect different degrees of kidney injury in dogs with naturally occurring acute pancreatitis.

Materials and methods: We included dogs with acute pancreatitis. Dogs with a history of kidney disease, urinary tract infection, dogs which received potentially nephrotoxic drugs and dogs managed with haemodialysis were excluded. Acute kidney injury was diagnosed if there was an acute onset of clinical signs, haemato-chemical results compatible with acute kidney injury. Students or staff-owned dogs were selected to build the healthy group.

Results: The study population was composed of 53 dogs: acute pancreatitis with AKI (n=15), acute pancreatitis alone (n=23), and healthy dogs (n=15). In dogs with acute pancreatitis and AKI, all the FEs of urine electrolytes were significantly higher than dogs with acute pancreatitis alone and healthy ones. Dogs with acute pancreatitis alone had higher uNGAL/uCr than healthy dogs (median 54 ng/mg vs. 0.1 ng/mg) and lower compared to AP-AKI patients (54 ng/mg vs 209 ng/mg).

Clinical significance: Some fractional excretion of electrolytes are increased acute kidney injury dogs, however their role in the early detection of renal injury in acute pancreatitis dogs remains doubtful. On the contrary, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin had higher concentrations in dogs with acute pancreatitis with or without acute kidney injury compared to healthy controls, suggesting that it may be used as an early marker of renal tubular damage in acute pancreatitis dogs.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Acute Kidney Injury* / diagnosis
  • Acute Kidney Injury* / veterinary
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers
  • Dog Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Dogs
  • Electrolytes
  • Lipocalin-2
  • Pancreatitis* / diagnosis
  • Pancreatitis* / veterinary


  • Lipocalin-2
  • Biomarkers
  • Electrolytes