Five patients, two men and three women age range 38 to 84 years, were treated for oxyphil cell adenoma of the kidney. Clinical signs were present in three cases and tumor size varied between 7 and 15 cm. Treatment was by nephrectomy in 4 cases and ablation of adenoma in the fifth patient, the tumor being located in the only functioning kidney in the latter. Close follow up surveillance for 32 months failed to detect any recurrence. Clinical and pathologic features of this neoplasm and therapeutic choice in these cases are discussed below. Although radical surgery has been employed in the past as principal therapy, more precise pre- and perioperative diagnosis should allow more frequent use of conservative surgery: partial nephrectomy or tumor excision.