Testicular germ cell tumour risk by occupation and industry: a French case-control study - TESTIS

Occup Environ Med. 2023 Jul;80(7):407-417. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2022-108601. Epub 2023 May 25.


Objective: Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are the most common cancer in men of working age and its incidence has increased notably over the past 40 years. Several occupations have been identified as potentially associated with TGCT risk. The aim of this study was to further explore the relationship between occupations, industries and TGCT risk in men aged 18-45 years.

Methods: The TESTIS study is a multicenter case-control study conducted between January 2015 and April 2018 in 20 of 23 university hospital centers in metropolitan France. A total of 454 TGCT cases and 670 controls were included. Full job histories were collected. Occupations were coded according to the International Standard Classification of Occupation 1968 version (ISCO-1968) and industry according to the 1999 version of Nomenclature d'Activités Française (NAF-1999). For each job held, ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using conditional logistic regression.

Results: A positive association was observed between TGCT and occupation as agricultural, animal husbandry worker (ISCO: 6-2; OR 1.71; 95% CI (1.02 to 2.82)), as well as salesman (ISCO: 4-51; OR 1.84; 95% CI (1.20 to 2.82)). An increased risk was further observed among electrical fitters and related, electrical and electronics workers employed for 2 years or more (ISCO: 8-5; OR≥2 years 1.83; 95% CI (1.01 to 3.32)). Analyses by industry supported these findings.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that agricultural, electrical and electronics workers, and salesmen workers experience an increased risk of TGCT. Further research is needed to identify the agents or chemicals in these high-risk occupations which are relevant in the TGCT development.

Trial registration number: NCT02109926.

Keywords: Epidemiology; Medical Oncology; Occupational Health; Risk assessment.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal* / epidemiology
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal* / etiology
  • Occupations
  • Risk Factors
  • Testicular Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Testicular Neoplasms* / etiology

Supplementary concepts

  • Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT02109926