Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Sodium Diclofenac Salt Release from Chitosan-Based Hydrogels and Possible Applications

Gels. 2023 May 17;9(5):422. doi: 10.3390/gels9050422.


Two formulations based on diclofenac sodium salt encapsulated into a chitosan hydrogel were designed and prepared, and their drug release was investigated by combining in vitro results with mathematical modeling. To understand how the pattern of drug encapsulation impacted its release, the formulations were supramolecularly and morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy and polarized light microscopy, respectively. The mechanism of diclofenac release was assessed by using a mathematical model based on the multifractal theory of motion. Various drug-delivery mechanisms, such as Fickian- and non-Fickian-type diffusion, were shown to be fundamental mechanisms. More precisely, in a case of multifractal one-dimensional drug diffusion in a controlled-release polymer-drug system (i.e., in the form of a plane with a certain thickness), a solution that allowed the model's validation through the obtained experimental data was established. The present research reveals possible new perspectives, for example in the prevention of intrauterine adhesions occurring through endometrial inflammation and other pathologies with an inflammatory mechanism background, such as periodontal diseases, and also therapeutic potential beyond the anti-inflammatory action of diclofenac as an anticancer agent, with a role in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, using this type of drug-delivery system.

Keywords: cancer; chitosan; drug-delivery systems; endometrial damage; intrauterine adhesions; multifractality; nanomedicines; periodontal disease; sodium diclofenac salt.

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.