In this study the authors explored the relationship between medical students' expected indebtedness and their career choice. Based on responses by University of Rochester medical students to a questionnaire, the authors found that total indebtedness, which included family loans and academic loans, was positively related to expected future salary, post-training work mode (that is, private or government practice or academic), and anticipated career choice (general, specialty, or subspecialty). Reported academic indebtedness, however, was not by itself significantly related to these variables. The authors concluded that anticipated high levels of total indebtedness were related to the anticipation of high future income, an intention to enter subspecialty practice, and the expectation of practicing full-time. Implications of these relationships for the field of medicine are outlined.