Anemia is common in patients with chronic kidney disease and is associated with a high burden of morbidity and adverse clinical outcomes. In 2012, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) published a guideline for the diagnosis and management of anemia in chronic kidney disease. Since then, new data from studies assessing established and emerging therapies for the treatment of anemia and iron deficiency have become available. Beginning in 2019, KDIGO planned 2 Controversies Conferences to review the new evidence and its potential impact on the management of anemia in clinical practice. Here, we report on the second of these conferences held virtually in December 2021, which focused on a new class of agents-the hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (HIF-PHIs). This report provides a review of the consensus points and controversies from this second conference and highlights areas that warrant prioritization for future research.
Keywords: anemia; chronic kidney disease; dialysis; erythropoiesis-stimulating agents; hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors; major adverse cardiovascular events.
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