20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE): Bioactions, receptors, vascular function, cardiometabolic disease and beyond

Adv Pharmacol. 2023:97:229-255. doi: 10.1016/bs.apha.2023.01.002. Epub 2023 Feb 24.


Vascular function is dynamically regulated and dependent on a bevy of cell types and factors that work in concert across the vasculature. The vasoactive eicosanoid, 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a key player in this system influencing the sensitivity of the vasculature to constrictor stimuli, regulating endothelial function, and influencing the renin angiotensin system (RAS), as well as being a driver of vascular remodeling independent of blood pressure elevations. Several of these bioactions are accomplished through the ligand-receptor pairing between 20-HETE and its high-affinity receptor, GPR75. This 20-HETE axis is at the root of various vascular pathologies and processes including ischemia induced angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, septic shock, hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and cardiometabolic diseases including diabetes and insulin resistance. Pharmacologically, several preclinical tools have been developed to disrupt the 20-HETE axis including 20-HETE synthesis inhibitors (DDMS and HET0016), synthetic 20-HETE agonist analogues (20-5,14-HEDE and 20-5,14-HEDGE) and 20-HETE receptor blockers (AAA and 20-SOLA). Systemic or cell-specific therapeutic targeting of the 20-HETE-GPR75 axis continues to be an invaluable approach as studies examine the molecular underpinnings activated by 20-HETE under various physiological settings. In particular, the development and characterization of 20-HETE receptor blockers look to be a promising new class of compounds that can provide a considerable benefit to patients suffering from these cardiovascular pathologies.

Keywords: 20-HETE; GPR40; GPR75; Obesity; Vascular function.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids / metabolism
  • Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids / pharmacology
  • Hypertension* / metabolism
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism
  • Renin-Angiotensin System*
  • Vascular Remodeling


  • 20-hydroxy-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid
  • Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids
  • GPR75 protein, human
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled