Analysis of the Effects of Known Sleep-Support Supplements in Relation to Life Habits, Sleep Conditions, and Sleep Problems

Nutrients. 2023 May 19;15(10):2377. doi: 10.3390/nu15102377.


Sleep is a crucial component of health, and insomnia is among the most common and vexing of life-habit-related disorders. While dietary sleep-support supplements can improve sleep, choosing an effective dietary supplement can be challenging for users due to the wide variety of options available and the varying effects experienced by different individuals. In this study, to identify new criteria for estimating the effects of dietary supplements, we examined the relationships among the dietary supplements, the pre-conditions (PCs; defined as the life habits and sleep conditions before supplementation), and the sleep problems of subjects before supplementation. An open, randomized, cross-over intervention trial enrolling 160 subjects was conducted to test the efficacy of each dietary supplement (Analysis 1) and the relationships among dietary supplements, the PCs, and sleep problems (Analysis 2). To this end, l-theanine (200 mg/day), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (111.1 mg/day), Apocynum venetum leaf extract (AVLE) (50 mg/day), and l-serine (300 mg/day) were administered to subjects. Before the first intervention period, life habits and sleep conditions were surveyed to identify each subject's PCs. For each combination of supplements and sleep problems, PCs were compared between subjects whose sleep problems were improved and subjects whose sleep problems were not improved via supplementation. All the tested supplements were found to ameliorate sleep problems significantly (Analysis 1). In Analysis 2, the PCs specific to improved subjects were found to differ depending on the dietary supplements and sleep problems. In addition, subjects who consumed dairy products often showed improvement in their sleep problems with all the tested supplements. This study suggests the possibility of personalizing sleep-support supplementation based on personal life habits, sleep conditions, and sleep problems, in addition to the known efficacy of dietary supplements.

Keywords: personalization; sleep; supplement.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Habits
  • Humans
  • Sleep
  • Sleep Wake Disorders*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.