Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), such as infliximab, are important treatment options for different diseases. Immunogenicity is a major risk, resulting in anti-drug antibodies (ADAs), being associated with adverse events and loss of response, influencing long-term outcomes. The development of ADAs against infliximab is primarily measured by immunoassays like radioimmunoassay (RIA). Although liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is increasingly utilized across different fields, this technique is currently not used for ADAs against infliximab measurements. Therefore, we developed the first LC-MS/MS method. Stable isotopically labeled infliximab antigen-binding fragments (SIL IFX F(ab')2) were used to bind and measure ADAs indirectly. Protein A magnetic beads were used to capture IgG, including ADAs, whereafter SIL IFX F(ab')2 was added for labeling. After washing, internal standard addition, elution, denaturation and digestion samples were measured by LC-MS/MS. Internal validation showed good linearity between 0.1 and 16 mg/L (R2 > 0.998). Sixty samples were used for cross-validation with RIA, and no significant difference between ADA concentrations was found. The methods had high correlation (R = 0.94, p < 0.001) and excellent agreement, intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.912 (95% confidence interval 0.858-0.947, p < 0.001). We present the first ADA against the infliximab LC-MS/MS method. The method is amendable for quantifying other ADAs, making it applicable as a template for future ADA methods.
Keywords: anti-drug antibody; anti-tumor necrosis factor; immunogenicity; inflammatory bowel disease; inflammatory disease; infliximab; liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; monoclonal antibody; radioimmunoassay; therapeutic drug monitoring.