Clinicopathologic characterization of hepatocellular adenomas in men: a multicenter experience

Hum Pathol. 2023 Aug:138:24-33. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2023.05.010. Epub 2023 May 26.


Hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) are benign liver neoplasms which most commonly present in women in their reproductive age. In men, they are rare and have a higher risk of malignant transformation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we present our multicenter experience with HCA in men in the United States. A total of 27 HCA cases were included, with a mean age of presentation of 37 years (range, 9-69 years) and a mean size of 6.8 cm (range, 0.9-18.5 cm). Based on the 2019 World Health Organization classification, the most common subtype identified was inflammatory HCA (IHCA; 10 cases, 37.0%) followed by unclassified HCA (UHCA; 7 cases, 25.9%), HNF1A-inactivated HCA (H-HCA; 6 cases, 22.2%), β-catenin-activated IHCA (b-IHCA; 3 cases, 11.1%), and β-catenin-activated HCA (b-HCA; 1 case, 3.7%). Six additional cases diagnosed as hepatocellular neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential (HUMP) were also included in the study. These cases presented in a mean age of 46 years (range, 17-64 years) and a size of 10.8 cm (range, 4.2-16.5 cm). We evaluated the significance of androgen receptor (AR) expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC); of the 16 cases with materials available, 8 were considered positive using the Allred score system (2 IHCA, 2 H-HCA, 1 UHCA, and 3 HUMP). Of the total cases, 12 were diagnosed on biopsies, for which follow-up information is available for 7, and none of them show evidence of malignant transformation. Of the 21 resection cases, a concomitant well-differentiated HCC within the same lesion was identified in 5 cases (23.8%), which were diagnosed as HCA (n = 4) or HUMP (n = 1). Overall, 15% of cases in our entire cohort of HCA and HUMP showed concomitant HCC, while none of the 7 biopsy cases showed any malignant transformation on follow-up (range, 22-160 months; mean, 61.8 months).

Keywords: Androgen; Atypical hepatocellular neoplasm; Hepatocellular adenoma; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Hepatocellular neoplasm; Men.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenoma, Liver Cell*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biopsy
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular*
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Precancerous Conditions*
  • Young Adult
  • beta Catenin


  • beta Catenin