Recent research advances on non-linear phenomena in various biosystems

J Biosci Bioeng. 2023 Aug;136(2):75-86. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2023.03.012. Epub 2023 May 26.


All biological phenomena can be classified as open, dissipative and non-linear. Moreover, the most typical phenomena are associated with non-linearity, dissipation and openness in biological systems. In this review article, four research topics on non-linear biosystems are described to show the examples from various biological systems. First, membrane dynamics of a lipid bilayer for the cell membrane is described. Since the cell membrane separates the inside of the cell from the outside, self-organizing systems that form spatial patterns on membranes often depend on non-linear dynamics. Second, various data banks based on recent genomics analysis supply the data including vast functional proteins from many organisms and their variable species. Since the proteins existing in nature are only a very small part of the space represented by amino acid sequence, success of mutagenesis-based molecular evolution approach crucially depends on preparing a library with high enrichment of functional proteins. Third, photosynthetic organisms depend on ambient light, the regular and irregular changes of which have a significant impact on photosynthetic processes. The light-driven process proceeds through many redox couples in the cyanobacteria constituting chain of redox reactions. The fourth topic focuses on a vertebrate model, the zebrafish, which can help to understand, predict and control the chaos of complex biological systems. In particular, during early developmental stages, developmental differentiation occurs dynamically from a fertilized egg to divided and mature cells. These exciting fields of complexity, chaos, and non-linear science have experienced impressive growth in recent decades. Finally, future directions for non-linear biosystems are presented.

Keywords: Antibodies; Cellulosome; Circadian rhythm; Lipid membrane; Membrane dynamics; Metabolomics; Molecular evolution; Non-linear biosystems; Photosynthetic processes; Redox rhythms.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Membrane
  • Cyanobacteria*
  • Lipid Bilayers
  • Photosynthesis
  • Zebrafish*


  • Lipid Bilayers