Significance of Histone H3.3 (G34W)-Mutant Protein in Pathological Diagnosis of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2023 May 1;24(5):1737-1741. doi: 10.31557/APJCP.2023.24.5.1737.

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to examine the expression of Histone H3.3 glycine 34 to tryptophan (G34W) mutant protein in Giant Cell Tumor of Bone (GCTB).

Methods: This analytic observation research used a cross-sectional study design on 71 bone tumors. The cases involved 54 tissue samples diagnosed as GCBT. It was divided into GCTB primer (n=37), recurrent GCTB (n=5), GCTB with metastasis (n=9), and malignant GCTB (n=3). There were 17 samples mimics of GCTB also tested, including chondroblastoma (n=1), giant cell reparative granuloma (n=2), giant cell of tendon sheath (n=7), chondromyxoid fibroma (n=2), aneurysmal bone cyst (n=2), and giant cell-rich osteosarcoma (n=3). The Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of G34W-mutated protein in these bone tumors.

Result: The representation H3.3 (G34W) was expressed in the nuclei of mononuclear stromal cells but not stained on osteoclast-like giant cells. This study was analyzed by the Chi-square test, Fisher's test, specificity test, and sensitivity test. We obtained p = 0.001 for Histone H3.3 (G34W) mutant expression in GCTB vs Non-GCTB. Statistically, there was no significant difference in the expression level of Histone H3.3 (G34W) in the GCTB and its variants p-value = 0.183. We also obtained that the specificity of Histone H3.3 expression on GCTB was 100% and the sensitivity of Histone H3.3 on GCTB was 77.8%.

Conclusion: Histon H3.3 mutant as a mutated driver gene in an Indonesian GCTB can assist to diagnose GCTB and compare it from other bone tumors.

Keywords: G34W; Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB); Histone H3.3; osteoclast-like giant cells.

MeSH terms

  • Bone Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Bone Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Bone Neoplasms* / metabolism
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Giant Cell Tumor of Bone* / diagnosis
  • Giant Cell Tumor of Bone* / genetics
  • Giant Cell Tumor of Bone* / pathology
  • Histones / genetics
  • Histones / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Mutant Proteins / metabolism

Substances

  • Histones
  • Mutant Proteins