Background: The Boston Naming Test (BNT) is the most widely used measure to assess anomia. However, it has been criticized for failing to differentiate the underlying cognitive process of anomia.
Objective: We validated the color-picture version of BNT (CP-BNT) in a sample with diverse neurodegenerative dementia diseases (NDDs). We also verified the differential ability of the composite indices of CP-BNT across NDDs groups.
Methods: The present study included Alzheimer's disease (n = 132), semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA, n = 53), non-svPPA (n = 33), posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, n = 35), and normal controls (n = 110). We evaluated psychometric properties of CP-BNT for the spontaneous naming (SN), the percentage of correct responses on semantic cuing and word recognition cuing (% SC, % WR). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to examine the discriminatory power of SN alone and the composite indices (SN, % SC, and % WR).
Results: The CP-BNT had sufficient internal consistency, good convergent, divergent validity, and criterion validity. Different indices of CP-BNT demonstrated distinct cognitive underpinnings. Category fluency was the strongest predictor of SN (β= 0.46, p < 0.001). Auditory comprehension tests highly associated with % WR (Sentence comprehension: β= 0.22, p = 0.001; Word comprehension: β= 0.20, p = 0.001), whereas a lower visuospatial score predicted % SC (β= -0.2, p = 0.001). Composite indices had better predictability than the SN alone when differentiating between NDDs, especially for PCA versus non-svPPA (area under the curve increased from 63.9% to 81.2%).
Conclusion: The CP-BNT is a highly linguistically relevant test with sufficient reliability and validity. Composite indices could provide more differential information beyond SN and should be used in clinical practice.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; anomia; language tests; neurodegenerative disease; primary progressive aphasia.