Energy and environmental investigation on photovoltaic system performance by application of square cross-sectional two-phase closed thermosyphon

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2023 May 30. doi: 10.1007/s11356-023-27865-7. Online ahead of print.


By increasing solar radiation, the temperature of photovoltaic cells rises, and as a result, the electrical power and lifespan of the panel are reduced. By cooling the panel with two-phase closed thermosyphons (TPCTs), this effect can be minimized. In contrast to typical TPCT, which has a circular cross-section, the thermosyphon used in this study has a square cross-section. In the proposed system, the solar cells place on an aluminum plate to reduce the thermal resistance and improve the heat transfer rate. Investigations have been made on the effects of three different filling ratios, including 25, 45, and 65%. The trial results show that equipped PV panel with square TPCT with a filling ratio of 45% produces the best cooling performance. In this instance, 68.31 kJ of heat energy was transmitted to the tank water. Electrically, the equipped panel has been found to produce up to 3.85% greater output power than a conventional one. A new mathematical model to estimate the performance of equipped PV panel with square TPCT is introduced too. Additionally, the research has looked into how varied tank volumes, solar radiation, and wind velocity affect the temperature difference in tank water. Based on environmental investigations, the proposed solar system is used instead of natural gas and fuel oil, it will prevent the annual emission of 106.3 and 159.4 kg of CO2 per unit area of the panel to atmosphere.

Keywords: CO2 emission; Cooling; Photovoltaic/thermal panel; Square cross-section; Two-phase closed thermosyphon.