Neuroinflammation After COVID-19 With Persistent Depressive and Cognitive Symptoms

JAMA Psychiatry. 2023 Aug 1;80(8):787-795. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2023.1321.


Importance: Persistent depressive symptoms, often accompanied by cognitive symptoms, commonly occur after COVID-19 illness (hereinafter termed COVID-DC, DC for depressive and/or cognitive symptoms). In patients with COVID-DC, gliosis, an inflammatory change, was suspected, but measurements of gliosis had not been studied in the brain for this condition.

Objective: To determine whether translocator protein total distribution volume (TSPO VT), a marker of gliosis that is quantifiable with positron emission tomography (PET), is elevated in the dorsal putamen, ventral striatum, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus of persons with COVID-DC.

Design, setting, and participants: This case-control study conducted at a tertiary care psychiatric hospital in Canada from April 1, 2021, to June 30, 2022, compared TSPO VT of specific brain regions in 20 participants with COVID-DC with that in 20 healthy controls. The TSPO VT was measured with fluorine F 18-labeled N-(2-(2-fluoroethoxy)benzyl)-N-(4-phenoxypyridin-3-yl)acetamide ([18F]FEPPA) PET.

Main outcomes and measures: The TSPO VT was measured in the dorsal putamen, ventral striatum, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus. Symptoms were measured with neuropsychological and psychological tests, prioritizing outcomes related to striatal function.

Results: The study population included 40 participants (mean [SD] age, 32.9 [12.3] years). The TSPO VT across the regions of interest was greater in persons with COVID-DC (mean [SD] age, 32.7 [11.4] years; 12 [60%] women) compared with healthy control participants (mean [SD] age, 33.3 [13.9] years; 11 [55%] women): mean (SD) difference, 1.51 (4.47); 95% CI, 0.04-2.98; 1.51 divided by 9.20 (17%). The difference was most prominent in the ventral striatum (mean [SD] difference, 1.97 [4.88]; 95% CI, 0.36-3.58; 1.97 divided by 8.87 [22%]) and dorsal putamen (mean difference, 1.70 [4.25]; 95% CI, 0.34-3.06; 1.70 divided by 8.37 [20%]). Motor speed on the finger-tapping test negatively correlated with dorsal putamen TSPO VT (r, -0.53; 95% CI, -0.79 to -0.09), and the 10 persons with the slowest speed among those with COVID-DC had higher dorsal putamen TSPO VT than healthy persons by 2.3 (2.30 divided by 8.37 [27%]; SD, 2.46; 95% CI, 0.92-3.68).

Conclusions and relevance: In this case-control study, TSPO VT was higher in patients with COVID-DC. Greater TSPO VT is evidence for an inflammatory change of elevated gliosis in the brain of an individual with COVID-DC. Gliosis may be consequent to inflammation, injury, or both, particularly in the ventral striatum and dorsal putamen, which may explain some persistent depressive and cognitive symptoms, including slowed motor speed, low motivation or energy, and anhedonia, after initially mild to moderate COVID-19 illness.

Publication types

  • Comment

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Brain / diagnostic imaging
  • Brain / metabolism
  • COVID-19* / complications
  • COVID-19* / metabolism
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cognition
  • Female
  • Gliosis / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Microglia / metabolism
  • Neuroinflammatory Diseases*
  • Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • Receptors, GABA / metabolism


  • TSPO protein, human
  • Receptors, GABA

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