Background Fetal diagnosis of congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) has been increasingly reported; however, predictors of clinical outcomes remain underexplored. We undertook a multicenter, retrospective study to investigate natural history, associated anomalies, and outcomes of fetal ccTGA. Methods and Results Fetuses with ccTGA diagnosed from January 2004 to July 2020 within 20 North American programs were included. Fetuses with severe ventricular hypoplasia thought to definitively preclude biventricular repair were excluded. We included 205 fetuses diagnosed with ccTGA at a median gestational age of 23 (interquartile range, 21-27) weeks. Genetic abnormalities were found in 5.9% tested, with extracardiac anomalies in 6.3%. Associated cardiac defects were diagnosed in 161 (78.5%), with atrioventricular block in 23 (11.3%). On serial fetal echocardiogram, 39% demonstrated a functional or anatomic change, most commonly increased tricuspid regurgitation (6.7%) or pulmonary outflow obstruction (11.1%). Of 194 fetuses with follow-up, 26 were terminated, 3 experienced fetal death (2 with atrioventricular block), and 165 were live-born. Of 158 with postnatal data (median follow-up 3.7 years), 10 (6.6%) had death/transplant before 1 year. On univariable analysis, fetal factors associated with fetal death or death/transplant by 1 year included ≥ mild tricuspid regurgitation, pulmonary atresia, aortic obstruction, fetal arrhythmia, and worsening hemodynamics on serial fetal echocardiogram (defined as worse right ventricular function, tricuspid regurgitation, or effusion). Conclusions Associated cardiac lesions and arrhythmias are common in fetal ccTGA, and functional changes commonly occur through gestation. Worse outcomes are associated with fetal tricuspid regurgitation (≥mild), any arrhythmia, pulmonary atresia, aortic obstruction, and worsening hemodynamics on serial echocardiograms. These findings can inform prenatal counseling and perinatal management planning.
Keywords: atrioventricular block; congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries; fetal echocardiography; situs inversus.