Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) potentially has great advantages over other DNA introduction methods: e.g., long DNA and numerous recipient strains can be dealt with at a time merely by co-cultivation with donor Agrobacterium cells. However, AMT was applied only to several laboratory yeast strains, and has never been considered as a standard gene-introduction method for yeast species. To disseminate the AMT method in yeast species, it is necessary to develop versatile AMT plasmid vectors including shuttle type ones, which have been unavailable yet for yeasts. In this study, we constructed a series of AMT plasmid vectors that consist of replicative (shuttle)- and integrative-types and harbor a gene conferring resistance to either G418 or aureobasidin A for application to prototrophic yeast strains. The vectors were successfully applied to five industrial yeast strains belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae after a modification of a previous AMT protocol, i.e., simply inputting a smaller number of yeast cells to the co-cultivation than that in the previous protocol. The revised protocol enabled all five yeast strains to generate recombinant colonies not only at high efficiency using replicative-type vectors, but also readily at an efficiency around 10-5 using integrative one. Further modification of the protocol demonstrated AMT for multiple yeast strains at a time with less labor. Therefore, AMT would facilitate molecular genetic approaches to many yeast strains in basic and applied sciences.
Keywords: DNA integration; DNA replication; Gene transfer; Horizontal DNA transfer; Industrial yeast; Plasmid vector; Saccharomyces; T-DNA; Type 4 secretion system (T4SS).
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