Tomato Brown Rugose Fruit Virus Pandemic

Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2023 Sep 5:61:137-164. doi: 10.1146/annurev-phyto-021622-120703. Epub 2023 Jun 2.


Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) is an emerging tobamovirus. It was first reported in 2015 in Jordan in greenhouse tomatoes and now threatens tomato and pepper crops around the world. ToBRFV is a stable and highly infectious virus that is easily transmitted by mechanical means and via seeds, which enables it to spread locally and over long distances. The ability of ToBRFV to infect tomato plants harboring the commonly deployed Tm resistance genes, as well as pepper plants harboring the L resistance alleles under certain conditions, limits the ability to prevent damage from the virus. The fruit production and quality of ToBRFV-infected tomato and pepper plants can be drastically affected, thus significantly impacting their market value. Herein, we review the current information and discuss the latest areas of research on this virus, which include its discovery and distribution, epidemiology, detection, and prevention and control measures, that could help mitigate the ToBRFV disease pandemic.

Keywords: Tobamovirus; hygiene; pepper; resistance; seed; tomato.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Fruit
  • Pandemics
  • Piper nigrum*
  • Solanum lycopersicum*
  • Tobamovirus*