Imaging Early Life Cardiovascular Phenotype

Circ Res. 2023 Jun 9;132(12):1607-1627. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.123.322054. Epub 2023 Jun 8.


The growing epidemics of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, in addition to worsening environmental factors such as air pollution, water scarcity, and climate change, have fueled the continuously increasing prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This has caused a markedly increasing burden of CVDs that includes mortality and morbidity worldwide. Identification of subclinical CVD before overt symptoms can lead to earlier deployment of preventative pharmacological and nonpharmacologic strategies. In this regard, noninvasive imaging techniques play a significant role in identifying early CVD phenotypes. An armamentarium of imaging techniques including vascular ultrasound, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, noninvasive computed tomography angiography, positron emission tomography, and nuclear imaging, with intrinsic strengths and limitations can be utilized to delineate incipient CVD for both clinical and research purposes. In this article, we review the various imaging modalities used for the evaluation, characterization, and quantification of early subclinical cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: atherosclerosis; cardiovascular diseases; heart failure; phenotype.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / diagnostic imaging
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular System*
  • Echocardiography
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Phenotype