Evaluation of electroretinography (ERG) parameters as a biomarker for ADHD

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2023 Dec 20:127:110807. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2023.110807. Epub 2023 Jun 7.


Background: The retina is recognized as an accessible part of the brain due to their common embryonic origin. The electroretinogram (ERG) has proven to be a valuable tool for detecting schizophrenia and bipolarity. We therefore investigated its ability to detect ADHD.

Methods: The cone and rod luminance response functions of the ERG were recorded in 26 ADHD subjects (17 women and 9 men) and 25 controls (16 women and 9 men).

Results: No significant differences were found between the mixed groups, but sexual dysmorphia was observed in the significant results. In males, a significant prolonged cone a-wave latency was observed in the ADHD group. In females, we observed a significant decrease in the cone a- and b-wave amplitudes and a trend for a prolonged cone b-wave latency as well as a higher scotopic mixed rod-cone a-wave in the ADHD group.

Conclusion: The data obtained in this study show the potential of the ERG to detect ADHD, warranting further large-scale studies.

Keywords: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); Biomarker; Diagnostic; Electroretinogram (ERG); Retina.

MeSH terms

  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity*
  • Biomarkers
  • Electroretinography* / methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Photic Stimulation / methods
  • Retina / physiology
  • Transcriptional Regulator ERG
  • Vision, Ocular


  • Biomarkers
  • ERG protein, human
  • Transcriptional Regulator ERG