Endemic Systemic Mycoses in Italy: A Systematic Review of Literature and a Practical Update

Mycopathologia. 2023 Aug;188(4):307-334. doi: 10.1007/s11046-023-00735-z. Epub 2023 Jun 9.


Endemic systemic mycoses such as blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, talaromycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis are emerging as an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We conducted a systematic review on endemic systemic mycoses reported in Italy from 1914 to nowadays. We found out: 105 cases of histoplasmosis, 15 of paracoccidioidomycosis, 10 of coccidioidomycosis, 10 of blastomycosis and 3 of talaromycosis. Most cases have been reported in returning travelers and expatriates or immigrants. Thirtytwo patients did not have a story of traveling to an endemic area. Fortysix subjects had HIV/AIDS. Immunosuppression was the major risk factor for getting these infections and for severe outcomes. We provided an overview on microbiological characteristics and clinical management principles of systemic endemic mycoses with a focus on the cases reported in Italy.

Keywords: Blastomycosis; Coccidioidomycosis; Histoplasmosis; Paracoccidioidomycosis; Systemic mycoses; Talaromycosis.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blastomycosis* / epidemiology
  • Coccidioidomycosis* / epidemiology
  • Histoplasmosis* / diagnosis
  • Histoplasmosis* / drug therapy
  • Histoplasmosis* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Mycoses* / drug therapy
  • Mycoses* / epidemiology
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis* / diagnosis
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis* / drug therapy
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis* / epidemiology

Supplementary concepts

  • talaromycosis