Dietary Intake of Pregnant Women with and without Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the United States

Nutrients. 2023 May 25;15(11):2464. doi: 10.3390/nu15112464.


Background: Pregnancy is a vulnerable time where the lives of mother and baby are affected by diet, especially high-risk pregnancies in women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Limited research has examined diet during pregnancy with IBD.

Aims: Describe and compare the diet quality of pregnant women with and without IBD, and examine associations between dietary intake and guidelines during pregnancy.

Methods: Three 24 h recalls were utilized to assess the diets of pregnant women with IBD (n = 88) and without IBD (n = 82) during 27-29 weeks of gestation. A customized frequency questionnaire was also administered to measure pre- and probiotic foods.

Results: Zinc intake (p = 0.02), animal protein (g) (p = 0.03), and ounce equivalents of whole grains (p = 0.03) were significantly higher in the healthy control (HC) group than the IBD group. Nutrients of concern with no significant differences between groups included iron (3% IBD and 2% HC met the goals), saturated fat (only 1% of both groups met the goals), choline (23% IBD and 21% HC met the goals), magnesium (38% IBD and 35% HC met the goals), calcium (48% IBD and 60% HC met the goals), and water intake (49% IBD and 48% HC met the goals).

Conclusions: Most pregnant women in this cohort fell short of the dietary nutrients recommended in pregnancy, especially concerning for women with IBD.

Keywords: IBD; diet; dietary guidelines; inflammatory bowel disease; pregnancy.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Diet
  • Eating
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases*
  • Nutritional Status
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnant Women*
  • United States