Modified Appleby procedure for locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma: A primer for the radiologist

Diagn Interv Imaging. 2023 Oct;104(10):455-464. doi: 10.1016/j.diii.2023.05.008. Epub 2023 Jun 8.


Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most prevalent pancreatic neoplasm accounting for more than 90% of pancreatic malignancies. Surgical resection with adequate lymphadenectomy remains the only available curative strategy for patients with PDAC. Despite improvements in both chemotherapy regimen and surgical care, body/neck PDAC still conveys a poor prognosis because of the vicinity of major vascular structures, including celiac trunk, which favors insidious disease spread at the time of diagnosis. Body/neck PDAC involving the celiac trunk is considered locally advanced PDAC in most guidelines and therefore not eligible for upfront resection. However, a more aggressive surgical approach (i.e., distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and en-bloc celiac trunk resection [DP-CAR]) was recently proposed to offer hope for cure in selected patients with locally advanced body/neck PDAC responsive to induction therapy at the cost of higher morbidity. The so-called "modified Appleby procedure" is highly demanding and requires optimal preoperative staging as well as appropriate patient preparation for surgery (i.e., preoperative arterial embolization). Herein, we review current evidence regarding DP-CAR indications and outcomes as well as the critical role of diagnostic and interventional radiology in patient preparation before DP-CAR, and early identification and management of DP-CAR complications.

Keywords: Celiac axis resection; Interventional radiology; Locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma; Modified Appleby procedure; Preoperative arterial embolization.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal* / diagnostic imaging
  • Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal* / surgery
  • Celiac Artery
  • Humans
  • Pancreatectomy
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Radiologists