Postpartum Home Blood Pressure Monitoring: A Systematic Review

Obstet Gynecol. 2023 Aug 1;142(2):285-295. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000005270. Epub 2023 Jun 13.


Objective: To assess the effectiveness of postpartum home blood pressure (BP) monitoring compared with clinic-based follow-up and the comparative effectiveness of alternative home BP-monitoring regimens.

Data sources: Search of Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, CINAHL, and from inception to December 1, 2022, searching for home BP monitoring in postpartum individuals.

Methods of study selection: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), nonrandomized comparative studies, and single-arm studies that evaluated the effects of postpartum home BP monitoring (up to 1 year), with or without telemonitoring, on postpartum maternal and infant outcomes, health care utilization, and harm outcomes. After double screening, we extracted demographics and outcomes to SRDR+.

Tabulation, integration, and results: Thirteen studies (three RCTs, two nonrandomized comparative studies, and eight single-arm studies) met eligibility criteria. All comparative studies enrolled participants with a diagnosis of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. One RCT compared home BP monitoring with bidirectional text messaging with scheduled clinic-based BP visits, finding an increased likelihood that at least one BP measurement was ascertained during the first 10 days postpartum for participants in the home BP-monitoring arm (relative risk 2.11, 95% CI 1.68-2.65). One nonrandomized comparative study reported a similar effect (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.59, 95% CI 1.36-1.77). Home BP monitoring was not associated with the rate of BP treatment initiation (aRR 1.03, 95% CI 0.74-1.44) but was associated with reduced unplanned hypertension-related hospital admissions (aRR 0.12, 95% CI 0.01-0.96). Most patients (83.3-87.0%) were satisfied with management related to home BP monitoring. Home BP monitoring, compared with office-based follow-up, was associated with reduced racial disparities in BP ascertainment by approximately 50%.

Conclusion: Home BP monitoring likely improves ascertainment of BP, which is necessary for early recognition of hypertension in postpartum individuals, and may compensate for racial disparities in office-based follow-up. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that home BP monitoring reduces severe maternal morbidity or mortality or reduces racial disparities in clinical outcomes.

Systematic review registration: PROSPERO, CRD42022313075.

Trial registration: NCT00372879.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Pressure
  • Blood Pressure Determination / methods
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory* / methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / diagnosis
  • Postpartum Period
  • Pregnancy

Associated data