Sclerotherapy for congenital vascular malformations with mixing foam of polidocanol and liquid of bleomycin

Phlebology. 2023 Aug;38(7):451-457. doi: 10.1177/02683555231184772. Epub 2023 Jun 15.


Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of sclerotherapy for congenital vascular malformation (CVM) using a combination of polidocanol foam and bleomycin liquid.

Methods: A retrospective review of a prospectively collected data on patients who had sclerotherapy for CVM from May 2015 to July 2022 was performed.

Results: A total of 210 patients with a mean age of 24.8 ± 2.0 years were included. Venous malformation (VM) was the most common type of CVM, accounting for 81.9% (172/210) of all patients. At 6 months follow-up, the overall clinical effective rate was 93.3% (196/210), and 50% (105/210) of patients were clinically cured. The clinical effective rates in VM, lymphatic, and arteriovenous malformation group were 94.2%, 100%, and 100%.

Conclusion: Sclerotherapy using a combination of polidocanol foam and bleomycin liquid is an effective and safe treatment for venous and lymphatic malformations. It is a promising treatment option with satisfactory clinical outcome in arteriovenous malformations.

Keywords: Congenital vascular malformation; bleomycin; polidocanol; sclerotherapy; venous malformation.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Arteriovenous Malformations* / diagnostic imaging
  • Arteriovenous Malformations* / therapy
  • Bleomycin
  • Humans
  • Polidocanol
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sclerosing Solutions / therapeutic use
  • Sclerotherapy / adverse effects
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vascular Malformations* / therapy
  • Young Adult


  • Polidocanol
  • Sclerosing Solutions
  • Bleomycin
  • dodecylnonaoxyethylene glycol monoether