A novel electrochemical biosensor based on palladium nanoparticles decorated on reduced graphene oxide-polyaminophenol matrix for the detection and discrimination of mitomycin C-DNA and acyclovir-DNA interaction

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2023 Sep 20:234:115524. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2023.115524. Epub 2023 Jun 10.


Both the design of molecules that will interact specifically with DNA and the determination of the mechanism of action of this drug on DNA are important as they allow the control of gene expression. In particular, rapid and precise analysis of this type of interaction is a vital element for pharmaceutical studies. In the present study, a novel reduced graphene oxide/ palladium nanoparticles/ poly(2-amino-4-chlorophenol) (rGO/Pd@PACP) nanocomposite was synthesized by chemical process to modify pencil graphite electrode (PGE) surface. Here, the performance of the newly developed nanomaterial-based biosensor for drug-DNA interaction analysis has been demonstrated. For this purpose, it was determined whether this system, which was developed by selecting a drug molecule (Mitomycin C; MC) known to interact with DNA and a drug molecule (Acyclovir; ACY) that does not interact with DNA, performs a reliable/accurate analysis. Here, ACY was used as a negative control. Compared to bare PGE, the rGO/Pd@PACP nanomaterial modified sensor exhibited 17 times higher sensitivity performance in terms of guanine oxidation signal measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Moreover, the developed nanobiosensor system provided a highly specific determination between the anticancer drug MC and ACY by discrimination the interactions of these drugs with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). ACY was also preferred in studies for the optimization of the new nanobiosensor developed. ACY was detected in a concentration as low as 0.0513 μM (51.3 nM) (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.1711 μM with a linear range from 0.1 to 0.5 μM.

Keywords: Acyclovir; Drug-DNA interaction; Electrochemical DNA nanobiosensor; Mitomycin C; Reduced graphene oxide / palladium nanoparticles; Voltammetry.

MeSH terms

  • Acyclovir
  • Biosensing Techniques*
  • DNA / chemistry
  • Electrochemical Techniques
  • Electrodes
  • Graphite* / chemistry
  • Metal Nanoparticles*
  • Mitomycin / metabolism
  • Palladium / chemistry


  • graphene oxide
  • Graphite
  • Mitomycin
  • Palladium
  • Acyclovir
  • DNA