Multiple Correspondence Analysis and HLA-Associations of Organ Involvement in a Large Cohort of African-American and European-American Patients with Sarcoidosis

Lung. 2023 Jun;201(3):297-302. doi: 10.1007/s00408-023-00626-6. Epub 2023 Jun 15.


Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease with predominant pulmonary involvement and vast heterogeneity of clinical manifestations and disease outcomes. African American (AA) patients suffer greater morbidity and mortality. Using Multiple Correspondence Analysis, we identified seven clusters of organ involvement in European American (EA; n = 385) patients which were similar to those previously described in a Pan-European (GenPhenReSa) and a Spanish cohort (SARCOGEAS). In contrast, AA (n = 987) had six, less well-defined and overlapping clusters with little similarity to the cluster identified in the EA cohort evaluated at the same U.S. institutions. Association of cluster membership with two-digit HLA-DRB1 alleles demonstrated ancestry-specific patterns of association and replicated known HLA effects.These results further support the notion that genetically influenced immune risk profiles, which differ based on ancestry, play a role in phenotypic heterogeneity. Dissecting such risk profiles will move us closer to personalized medicine for this complex disease.

Keywords: African-American ancestry; Multiple Correspondence Analysis; Precision Medicine; Sarcoidosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Black or African American / genetics
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • HLA-DRB1 Chains* / genetics
  • Humans
  • Sarcoidosis* / genetics
  • White / genetics


  • HLA-DRB1 Chains