Deficient anterior pituitary with common variable immune deficiency (DAVID syndrome): a new case and literature reports

J Neuroendocrinol. 2023 Jun;35(6):e13287. doi: 10.1111/jne.13287. Epub 2023 Jun 15.


Deficient anterior pituitary with common variable immune deficiency (DAVID) syndrome is a rare condition characterized by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency and primary hypogammaglobulinemia. It is due to heterozygous mutations of the nuclear factor kappa-B subunit 2 (NFKB2) gene. Only a few isolated cases have been reported since its first description by our team. Through the international multicenter GENHYPOPIT network, we identified a new case of DAVID syndrome. We then conducted an extensive review of the DAVID syndrome cases published from 2012 to 2022. A 7-year-old boy was diagnosed with symptomatic hypoglycemia revealing ACTH deficiency. Laboratory tests showed asymptomatic hypogammaglobulinemia. He harbored a heterozygous point mutation in NFKB2 gene (c.2600C > T, p.Ala867Val). His management included hydrocortisone replacement treatment, and he also received subcutaneous immunoglobulins during the Covid-19 pandemic. We analyzed 28 cases of DAVID syndrome with ACTH deficiency. ACTH deficiency was the only hormone deficiency in 79% of patients, but some patients harbored growth hormone (GH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiencies. The first presenting symptoms were sinus/pulmonary infections (82%, mean age of 3 years) and alopecia (mean age of 4.7 years). ACTH deficiency was the third presenting condition (mean age at diagnosis of 8.6 years). All patients had hypogammaglobulinemia (decreased IgA and IgM levels), and 57% of patients had at least one autoimmune manifestation. Heterozygous mutations at the 3'end of the NFKB2 gene, coding for the C-terminal domain of the protein, were identified in all cases. Better knowledge of DAVID syndrome will help clinicians make an early diagnosis to avoid life-threatening complications.

Keywords: CVID; NFKB2 mutations; anterior pituitary deficiency; corticotroph deficiency; hypogammaglobulinemia.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / deficiency
  • Adult
  • Agammaglobulinemia / complications
  • Autoimmunity
  • Child
  • Common Variable Immunodeficiency* / complications
  • Common Variable Immunodeficiency* / genetics
  • Common Variable Immunodeficiency* / immunology
  • Common Variable Immunodeficiency* / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Heterozygote
  • Human Growth Hormone / deficiency
  • Humans
  • Infections / complications
  • Male
  • Mothers
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Pituitary Hormones, Anterior* / deficiency
  • Syndrome
  • Thyrotropin / deficiency


  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • Human Growth Hormone
  • NFKB2 protein, human
  • Pituitary Hormones, Anterior
  • Thyrotropin