Pen-drawing is an intuitive, convenient, and creative fabrication method for delivering emergent and adaptive design to real devices. To demonstrate the application of pen-drawing to robot construction, we developed pen-drawn Marangoni swimmers that perform complex programmed tasks using a simple and accessible manufacturing process. By simply drawing on substrates using ink-based Marangoni fuel, the swimmers demonstrate advanced robotic motions such as polygon and star-shaped trajectories, and navigate through maze. The versatility of pen-drawing allows the integration of the swimmers with time-varying substrates, enabling multi-step motion tasks such as cargo delivery and return to the original place. We believe that our pen-based approach will significantly expand the potential applications of miniaturized swimming robots and provide new opportunities for simple robotic implementations.
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