Polymyositis and dermatomyositis biomarkers

Clin Chim Acta. 2023 Jul 1:547:117443. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2023.117443. Epub 2023 Jun 15.

Abstract

Polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) are the two subtypes of idiopathic inflammatory myositis and are characterized as symmetrical progressive muscle weakness in the proximal extremities. PM/DM affect multiple organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive tract systems. An in-depth understanding of PM/DM biomarkers will facilitate development of simple and accurate strategies for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis prediction. This review summarized the classic biomarkers of PM/DM, including anti-aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (ARS) antibody, anti-Mi-2 antibody, anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibody, anti-transcription intermediary factor 1-γ (TIF1-γ) antibody, anti-nuclear matrix protein 2 (NXP2) antibody, among others. Among them, anti-aminoacyl tRNA synthetases antibody is the most classic. In addition, many potential novel biomarkers were also discussed in this review, including anti-HSC70 antibody, YKL-40, interferons, myxovirus resistance protein 2, regenerating islet-derived protein 3-α, interleukin (IL)-17, IL-35, microRNA (miR)-1 and so on. Among the biomarkers of PM/DM described in this review, classic biomarkers have become the mainstream biomarkers to assist clinicians in diagnosis due to their early discovery, in-depth research, and widespread application. The novel biomarkers also have potential and broad research prospects, which will make immeasurable contributions to exploring biomarker-based classification standards and expanding their application value.

Keywords: Biomarker; Dermatomyositis (DM); Disease diagnosis; Research advances; polymyositis (PM).

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Autoantibodies
  • Biomarkers
  • Dermatomyositis* / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Ligases
  • Polymyositis* / diagnosis
  • RNA, Transfer
  • Retrospective Studies

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Autoantibodies
  • Ligases
  • RNA, Transfer