Stem cell biotherapy: A new remedy for Trichinella spiralis-induced inflammatory myopathy

Parasitol Int. 2023 Oct:96:102773. doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2023.102773. Epub 2023 Jun 15.

Abstract

Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis)-induced myopathy is an inflammatory myopathy that is difficult to treat unless the parasite is combated in its early intestinal phase before it reaches the muscles. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of local mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on T. spiralis-induced inflammatory myopathy in rats. Rats were divided into four groups: Group 1 (non-infected non-treated group); Group 2 (infected non-treated group); Group 3 (infected albendazole (ABZ)-treated group); and Group 4 (infected MSC-treated group). Their muscle status was assessed physiologically with the righting reflex and electromyography (EMG), parasitologically with the total muscle larval count, histopathologically with hematoxylin and eosin and Mallory's trichrome stains, as well as immunohistochemically for myogenin as a marker of muscle regeneration. Additionally, serum muscle enzymes creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as muscle matrix metalloproteinases MMP1 and MMP9, were assayed. Finally, the immunological response was assessed by measuring the levels of the muscle inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (INF-γ), and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Our findings revealed that MSC therapy markedly improved muscle EMG and righting reflex, as well as the histopathological appearance of the muscles, reduced inflammatory cellular infiltrates, and increased myogenin immunostaining. It also reduced serum CK and LDH levels, as well as muscle INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, MMP1, and MMP9 levels. However, it had no effect on the total muscle larval count. Accordingly, due to its anti-inflammatory properties and muscle-regenerative effect, MSC therapy could be a promising new remedy for T. spiralis-induced myopathy.

Keywords: Electromyography; Mesenchymal stem cells; Myogenin; Myopathy; Trichinella spiralis; Trichinosis.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Therapy
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Interleukin-4
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • Muscular Diseases*
  • Myogenin
  • Myositis* / therapy
  • Rats
  • Stem Cells
  • Trichinella spiralis*
  • Trichinellosis* / parasitology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

Substances

  • Interleukin-4
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
  • Myogenin
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Interferon-gamma