Preclinical evaluation of performance, safety and usability of VAX-ID®, a novel intradermal injection device

Vaccine. 2023 Jul 12;41(31):4609-4615. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2023.06.028. Epub 2023 Jun 15.


The recent SARS-Cov2 pandemic and mpox health emergency have led to renewed interest in intradermal vaccination due to its dose sparing potential. Indeed, intradermal vaccination is particularly of interest for use in mass vaccination campaigns, pandemic preparedness programs, and/or for vaccines that are expensive or in short supply. Moreover, the rich immune network in the skin makes it an attractive target not only for prophylactic vaccination, but also for therapeutic vaccination, like immunotherapy and (dendritic) cell-based therapies. The aim of the current paper was to provide an overview of preclinical data generated with VAX-ID®, a novel intradermal drug delivery device, to allow assessing it performance, safety and usability. The device can overcome challenges seen with the Mantoux technique whereby the needle needs to be inserted under a shallow angle. Various parameters of VAX-ID® were evaluated, including dead-space volume, dose accuracy, penetration depth & liquid deposit in piglets, as well as usability by healthcare professionals. The device has shown to have a low dead volume and a high dose accuracy. Importantly, the device performed successful injections at a predefined depth into the dermis with a high safety profile as confirmed by visual and histological evaluation in piglets. Moreover, the device was rated as easy to use by healthcare professionals. The combined preclinical performance and usability findings indicate that VAX-ID® can provide reliable, standardized and accurate drug delivery in the dermal layer of the skin with a high ease of use. The device offers a solution for injection of various prophylactic as well as therapeutic vaccines.

Keywords: Device; Drug delivery; Intradermal injection; Performance; Usability; Vaccination.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Injections, Intradermal / methods
  • RNA, Viral
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Swine
  • Vaccination / methods
  • Vaccines*


  • RNA, Viral
  • Vaccines