Effectiveness of JYNNEOS Vaccine Against Diagnosed Mpox Infection - New York, 2022

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2023 May 19;72(20):559-563. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7220a4.


In 2022, an international Monkeypox virus outbreak, characterized by transmission primarily through sexual contact among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM), resulted in 375 monkeypox (mpox) cases in the state of New York outside of New York City (NYC).*, The JYNNEOS vaccine (Modified Vaccinia Ankara vaccine, Bavarian Nordic), licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) against mpox as a 2-dose series, with doses administered 4 weeks apart,§ was deployed in a national vaccination campaign. Before this outbreak, evidence to support vaccine effectiveness (VE) against mpox was based on human immunologic and animal challenge studies (1-3). New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) conducted a case-control study to estimate JYNNEOS VE against diagnosed mpox in New York residents outside of NYC, using data from systematic surveillance reporting. A case-patient was defined as a man aged ≥18 years who received a diagnosis of mpox during July 24-October 31, 2022. Contemporaneous control patients were men aged ≥18 years with diagnosed rectal gonorrhea or primary syphilis and a history of male-to-male sexual contact, without mpox. Case-patients and control patients were matched to records in state immunization systems. JYNNEOS VE was estimated as 1 - odds ratio (OR) x 100, and JYNNEOS vaccination status (vaccinated versus unvaccinated) at the time of diagnosis was compared, using conditional logistic regression models that adjusted for week of diagnosis, region, patient age, and patient race and ethnicity. Among 252 eligible mpox case-patients and 255 control patients, the adjusted VE of 1 dose (received ≥14 days earlier) or 2 doses combined was 75.7% (95% CI = 48.5%-88.5%); the VE for 1 dose was 68.1% (95% CI = 24.9%-86.5%) and for 2 doses was 88.5% (95% CI = 44.1%-97.6%). These findings support recommended 2-dose JYNNEOS vaccination consistent with CDC and NYSDOH guidance.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Antiviral Agents* / administration & dosage
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Homosexuality, Male
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mpox (monkeypox)* / diagnosis
  • Mpox (monkeypox)* / prevention & control
  • New York City / epidemiology
  • Sexual and Gender Minorities
  • Smallpox Vaccine* / administration & dosage
  • United States
  • Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / administration & dosage


  • smallpox and monkeypox vaccine modified vaccinia ankara-bavarian nordic
  • Vaccines
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Smallpox Vaccine
  • Vaccines, Attenuated