Phenotypic Profiling and Molecular Mechanisms in Hyperparathyroidism-jaw Tumor Syndrome

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2023 Nov 17;108(12):3165-3177. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgad368.


Context: Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome is a heritable form of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by germline inactivating mutations in CDC73 encoding parafibromin and is associated with an increased risk of parathyroid cancer. There is little evidence to guide the management of patients with the disease.

Objective: (1) Characterize the natural history of HPT-JT, (2) correlate genotype and histology of parathyroid tumors with parafibromin immunostaining, (3) understand molecular changes downstream to CDC73 loss.

Design: Retrospective study of patients with HPT-JT syndrome (genetically confirmed or affected first-degree relatives). Independent review of uterine tumor from 2 patients and staining for parafibromin on parathyroid tumors from 19 patients (13 adenomas, 6 carcinomas) was performed. RNA-sequencing was performed in 21 parathyroid samples (8 HPT-JT-related adenomas, 6 HPT-JT-related carcinomas, and 7 sporadic carcinomas with wild-type CDC73).

Results: We identified 68 patients from 29 kindreds with HPT-JT with median age at last follow-up of 39 [interquartile range, 29-53] years. A total of 55/68 (81%) developed primary hyperparathyroidism; 17/55 (31%) had parathyroid carcinoma. Twelve of 32 (38%) females developed uterine tumors. Of the 11 patients who had surgical resection for uterine tumors, 12/24 (50%) tumors were rare mixed epithelial mesenchymal polypoid lesions. Four of 68 patients (6%) developed solid kidney tumors; 3/4 had a CDC73 variant at p.M1 residue. Parafibromin staining of parathyroid tumors did not correlate with tumor histology or genotype. RNA-sequencing showed a significant association of HPT-JT-related parathyroid tumors with transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, mesodermal commitment pathway, and cell-cell adhesion.

Conclusions: Multiple, recurrent atypical adenomyomatous uterine polyps appear to be enriched in women with HPT-JT and appear characteristic of the disease. Patients with CDC73 variants at p.M1 residue appear predisposed to kidney tumors.

Clinical trial number: NCT04969926.

Keywords: CDC73; heritable primary hyperparathyroidism; hypercalcemia; multi-gland disease; parathyroid cancer.

MeSH terms

  • Adenoma* / complications
  • Adenoma* / genetics
  • Adenoma* / pathology
  • Adult
  • Carcinoma* / genetics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary* / complications
  • Jaw Neoplasms* / complications
  • Jaw Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Jaw Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Kidney Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Parathyroid Neoplasms* / complications
  • Parathyroid Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Parathyroid Neoplasms* / pathology
  • RNA
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Transcription Factors
  • Uterine Neoplasms* / complications
  • Uterine Neoplasms* / genetics


  • Transcription Factors
  • RNA

Supplementary concepts

  • Hyperparathyroidism 2

Associated data