Assessing Therapeutic Response to Radium-223 with an Automated Bone Scan Index among Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients: Data from Patients in the J-RAP-BSI Trial

Cancers (Basel). 2023 May 16;15(10):2784. doi: 10.3390/cancers15102784.


To evaluate the usefulness of change in the automated bone scan index (aBSI) value derived from bone scintigraphy findings as an imaging biomarker for the assessment of treatment response and survival prediction in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients treated with Ra-223. This study was a retrospective investigation of a Japanese cohort of 205 mCRPC patients who received Ra-223 in 14 hospitals between July 2016 and August 2020 and for whom bone scintigraphy before and after radium-223 treatment was available. Correlations of aBSI change, with changes in the serum markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were evaluated. Additionally, the association of those changes with overall survival (OS) was assessed using the Cox proportional-hazards model and Kaplan-Meier curve results. Of the 205 patients enrolled, 165 (80.5%) completed six cycles of Ra-223. Following treatment, ALP decline (%ALP < 0%) was noted in 72.2% (148/205), aBSI decline (%aBSI < 0%) in 52.7% (108/205), and PSA decline (%PSA < 0%) in 27.8% (57/205). Furthermore, a reduction in both aBSI and ALP was seen in 87 (42.4%), a reduction in only ALP was seen in 61 (29.8%), a reduction in only aBSI was seen in 21 (10.2%), and in both aBSI and ALP increasing/stable (≥0%) was seen in 36 (17.6%) patients. Multiparametric analysis showed changes in PSA [hazard ratio (HR) 4.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.32-8.77, p < 0.0001], aBSI (HR 2.22, 95%CI 1.43-3.59, p = 0.0003), and ALP (HR 2.06, 95%CI 1.35-3.14, p = 0.0008) as significant prognostic factors for OS. For mCRPC patients treated with Ra-223, aBSI change is useful as an imaging biomarker for treatment response assessment and survival prediction.

Keywords: 223Radium-dichloride; bone scintigraphy; castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC); overall survival; treatment response.