TOF1 and RRM3 reveal a link between gene silencing and the pausing of replication forks

Curr Genet. 2023 Dec;69(4-6):235-249. doi: 10.1007/s00294-023-01273-3. Epub 2023 Jun 22.


Eukaryotic DNA replication is accompanied by the disassembly and reassembly of nucleosomes and the transmission of epigenetic marks to the newly assembled chromatids. Several histone chaperones, including CAF-1 and Asf1p, are central to these processes. On the other hand, replication forks pause at numerous positions throughout the genome, but it is not known if and how this pausing affects the reassembly and maintenance of chromatin structures. Here, we applied drug-free gene silencing assays to analyze the genetic interactions between CAC1, ASF1, and two genes that regulate the stability of the paused replisome (TOF1) and the resumption of elongation (RRM3). Our results show that TOF1 and RRM3 differentially interact with CAF-1 and ASF1 and that the deletions of TOF1 and RRM3 lead to reduced silencing and increased frequency of epigenetic conversions at three loci in the genome of S. cerevisiae. Our study adds details to the known activities of CAF-1 and Asf1p and suggests that the pausing of the replication fork can lead to epigenetic instability.

Keywords: ASF1; CAF-1; Epigenetic conversions; RRM3; Replication fork pausing; TOF1.

MeSH terms

  • Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism
  • DNA Helicases / genetics
  • DNA Replication / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Gene Silencing
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins* / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins* / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae* / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae* / metabolism


  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • DNA Helicases
  • TOF1 protein, S cerevisiae