Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection and a syndrome shaped by pathogen and host factors evolving over time. During sepsis, the absolute number of lymphocytes decreases. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK cells are reduced. Lymphocytes are an essential element of the body's defence against pathogens. Interleukin 7 has strong anti-apoptotic properties and induces the proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. IL-15 prompts the generation of mature NK cells in the bone marrow, plays an important role in the generation, cytotoxicity, and survival of CD8+ T lymphocytes, and is essential for the survival of natural killer T (NKT) and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). The study highlights the importance of monitoring IL-7 levels in patients with sepsis and septic shock, as low levels of this cytokine were associated with an increased risk of mortality. Physicians should consider using IL-7 levels as a biomarker to identify patients who are at higher risk of mortality and may require more aggressive treatment.
Keywords: Inflammatory markers; Interleukin 15; Interleukin 7; Mortality; Sepsis; Septic shock.
Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.