Nutrition management of PKU with pegvaliase therapy: update of the web-based PKU nutrition management guideline recommendations

Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2023 Jun 22;18(1):155. doi: 10.1186/s13023-023-02751-0.


Background: The web-based GMDI/SERN PKU Nutrition Management Guideline, published before approval of pegvaliase pharmacotherapy, offers guidance for nutrition management of individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) treated with dietary therapy and/or sapropterin. An update of this guideline aims to provide recommendations that improve clinical outcomes and promote consistency and best practice in the nutrition management of individuals with PKU receiving pegvaliase therapy. Methodology includes: formulation of a research question; review, critical appraisal, and abstraction of peer-reviewed studies and unpublished practice literature; expert input through Delphi surveys and a Nominal Group process; and external review by metabolic experts.

Results: Recommendations, summary statements, and strength of evidence are included for each of the following topics: (1) initiating a pegvaliase response trial, (2) monitoring therapy response and nutritional status, (3) managing pegvaliase treatment after response to therapy, (4) education and support for optimal nutrition with pegvaliase therapy, and (5) pegvaliase therapy during pregnancy, lactation, and adolescence. Findings, supported by evidence and consensus, provide guidance for nutrition management of individuals receiving pegvaliase therapy for PKU. Recommendations focus on nutrition management by clinicians, as well as the challenges for individuals with PKU as a result of therapy changes.

Conclusions: Successful pegvaliase therapy allows the possibility for individuals with PKU to consume an unrestricted diet while still maintaining the benefits of blood phenylalanine control. This necessitates a perspective change in education and support provided to individuals in order to achieve healthy nutrient intake that supports optimal nutritional status. The updated guideline, and companion Toolkit for practical implementation of recommendations, is web-based, allowing for utilization by health care providers, researchers, and collaborators who advocate and care for individuals with PKU. These guidelines are meant to be followed always taking into account the provider's clinical judgement and considering the individual's specific circumstances. Open access is available at the Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International ( ) and Southeast Regional Genetics Network ( ) websites.

Keywords: Nutrition; Nutrition guideline; PKU; Palynziq®; Pegvaliase; Phenylalanine ammonia lyase; Phenylketonuria.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Diet
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Internet
  • Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase* / therapeutic use
  • Phenylketonurias*
  • Pregnancy


  • pegvaliase
  • Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase