Trends in Histrelin Implantation at a Pediatric Tertiary Care Center

J Surg Res. 2023 Nov:291:73-79. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2023.05.019. Epub 2023 Jun 21.


Introduction: Determine procedural outcomes and identify changing trends of utilization among patients undergoing histrelin implantation at a large pediatric tertiary care center over 15 y.

Methods: Retrospective review of all patients undergoing histrelin implantation between January 2008 and April 2022.

Results: A total of 746 patients underwent 1794 unique procedures (1364 placements/replacements, 430 removals). Procedures were performed in the clinic (1071, 60%), sedation unit (630, 35%), and operating room (93, 5%). A total of 14 (0.8%) complications were identified, including two patients that required early implant removal and one patient requiring antibiotics. Implants were placed for central precocious puberty (CPP, 579) or gender dysphoria (GD, 167). Cohort included 25.9% males and 74.1% females with mean age of implantation of 9.48 y (SD: 2.34, range: 1.05-17.34). The GD group is comprised of 52.4% males and 47.6% females, compared to 18.3% males and 81.7% females in the CPP. Significant difference was identified for mean age at placement by indication (CPP 8.65 y versus GD 12.34, P < 0.001). New patient referrals and implant procedures increased significantly over 14 y. Yearly frequency of patients receiving implants for CPP and GD increased significantly (P < 0.001), with proportion of GD patients increasing from 7% to 32%.

Conclusions: Histrelin procedures have increased in frequency overall with the greater increase noted in the GD cohort. The development of a streamlined process and a dedicated team have enabled histrelin procedures to be safely performed in the clinic setting for most, with a very low complication rate.

Keywords: Gender dysphoria; Histrelin; Implant; Precocious puberty; Puberty blockers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Drug Implants
  • Female
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Puberty, Precocious*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tertiary Care Centers


  • histrelin
  • Drug Implants
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone