α-Glucosidase inhibitors are essential in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Plant-derived drugs are promising sources of new compounds with glucosidase-inhibiting ability. The Geum aleppicum Jacq. and Sibbaldianthe bifurca (L.) Kurtto & T.Erikss. herbs are used in many traditional medical systems to treat diabetes. In this study, metabolites of the G. aleppicum and S. bifurca herbs in active growth, flowering, and fruiting stages were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array and electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-PDA-ESI-tQ-MS/MS). In total, 29 compounds in G. aleppicum and 41 components in S. bifurca were identified including carbohydrates, organic acids, benzoic and ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, flavonoids, and triterpenoids. Gemin A, miquelianin, niga-ichigoside F1, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid 4-O-glucoside were the dominant compounds in the G. aleppicum herb, while guaiaverin, miquelianin, tellimagrandin II2, casuarictin, and glucose were prevailing compounds in the S. bifurca herb. On the basis of HPLC activity-based profiling of the G. aleppicum herb extract, the most pronounced inhibition of α-glucosidase was observed for gemin A and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide. The latter compound and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside demonstrated maximal inhibition of α-glucosidase in the S. bifurca herb extract. The obtained results confirm the prospects of using these plant compounds as possible sources of hypoglycemic nutraceuticals.
Keywords: Geum aleppicum; HPLC activity-based profiling; Potentilla bifurca; Rosaceae; avens; diabetes; ellagitannins; flavonoids; gemin A; high-performance liquid chromatography.