Skin Pigmentation Types, Causes and Treatment-A Review

Molecules. 2023 Jun 18;28(12):4839. doi: 10.3390/molecules28124839.


Human skin pigmentation and melanin synthesis are incredibly variable, and are impacted by genetics, UV exposure, and some drugs. Patients' physical appearance, psychological health, and social functioning are all impacted by a sizable number of skin conditions that cause pigmentary abnormalities. Hyperpigmentation, where pigment appears to overflow, and hypopigmentation, where pigment is reduced, are the two major classifications of skin pigmentation. Albinism, melasma, vitiligo, Addison's disease, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, which can be brought on by eczema, acne vulgaris, and drug interactions, are the most common skin pigmentation disorders in clinical practice. Anti-inflammatory medications, antioxidants, and medications that inhibit tyrosinase, which prevents the production of melanin, are all possible treatments for pigmentation problems. Skin pigmentation can be treated orally and topically with medications, herbal remedies, and cosmetic products, but a doctor should always be consulted before beginning any new medicine or treatment plan. This review article explores the numerous types of pigmentation problems, their causes, and treatments, as well as the 25 plants, 4 marine species, and 17 topical and oral medications now on the market that have been clinically tested to treat skin diseases.

Keywords: depigmentation; hyperpigmentation; hypopigmentation; melanin; skin lightening; skin pigmentation; tyrosinase inhibitors; vitiligo.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Hyperpigmentation* / drug therapy
  • Hyperpigmentation* / etiology
  • Melanins
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase
  • Skin
  • Skin Pigmentation*


  • Melanins
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.