Cholecystokinin (CCK), a neuropeptide which fulfills almost all criteria for neurotransmitter status, has been co-localized with dopamine in midbrain mesolimbic and mesocortical neurons that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Preclinical research suggests that CCK may in part act to enhance central dopaminergic activity. In an attempt to evaluate the role of CCK relative to the dopamine hyperactivity hypothesis of schizophrenia, in the present investigation the putative CCK receptor antagonist, proglumide, was administered to four schizophrenic patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. All patients were receiving concurrent neuroleptic medication, but were still significantly symptomatic. Proglumide was without effect on the patients' psychosis ratings. Potential reasons for this negative finding are discussed.