Inoculation of Escherichia coli enriched the key functional bacteria that intensified cadmium accumulation by halophyte Suaeda salsa in saline soils

J Hazard Mater. 2023 Sep 15;458:131922. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2023.131922. Epub 2023 Jun 22.


The enhancement of cadmium (Cd) extraction by plants from contaminated soils associated with phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) has been widely reported, but the underlying mechanism remains scarcely, especially in Cd-contaminated saline soils. In this study, a green fluorescent protein-labeled PSB, the strain E. coli-10527, was observed to be abundantly colonized in the rhizosphere soils and roots of halophyte Suaeda salsa after inoculation in saline soil pot tests. Cd extraction by plants was significantly promoted. The enhanced Cd phytoextraction by E. coli-10527 was not solely dependent on bacterial efficient colonization, but more significantly, relied on the remodeling of rhizosphere microbiota, as confirmed by soil sterilization test. Taxonomic distribution and co-occurrence network analyses suggested that E. coli-10527 strengthened the interactive effects of keystone taxa in the rhizosphere soils, and enriched the key functional bacteria that involved in plant growth promotion and soil Cd mobilization. Seven enriched rhizospheric taxa (Phyllobacterium, Bacillus, Streptomyces mirabilis, Pseudomonas mirabilis, Rhodospirillale, Clostridium, and Agrobacterium) were obtained from 213 isolated strains, and were verified to produce phytohormone and promote soil Cd mobilization. E. coli-10527 and those enriched taxa could assemble as a simplified synthetic community to strengthen Cd phytoextraction through their synergistic interactions. Therefore, the specific microbiota in rhizosphere soils enriched by the inoculated PSB were also the key to intensifying Cd phytoextraction.

Keywords: Bacteria colonization; Cadmium-contaminated saline soils; Phytoextraction; Rhizobacterial community; Synthetic community.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bacteria / metabolism
  • Biodegradation, Environmental
  • Cadmium / metabolism
  • Chenopodiaceae*
  • Escherichia coli / metabolism
  • Phosphates / analysis
  • Rhizosphere
  • Salt-Tolerant Plants / metabolism
  • Soil
  • Soil Microbiology
  • Soil Pollutants* / metabolism


  • Cadmium
  • Soil
  • Soil Pollutants
  • Phosphates