Safety and Immunogenicity of an Andes Virus DNA Vaccine by Needle-Free Injection: A Randomized, Controlled Phase 1 Study

J Infect Dis. 2024 Jan 12;229(1):30-38. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiad235.


Background: Andes virus (ANDV), a rodent-borne hantavirus, causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The safety and immunogenicity of a novel ANDV DNA vaccine was evaluated.

Methods: Phase 1, double-blind, dose-escalation trial randomly assigned 48 healthy adults to placebo or ANDV DNA vaccine delivered via needle-free jet injection. Cohorts 1 and 2 received 2 mg of DNA or placebo in a 3-dose (days 1, 29, 169) or 4-dose (days 1, 29, 57, 169) schedule, respectively. Cohorts 3 and 4 received 4 mg of DNA or placebo in the 3-dose and 4-dose schedule, respectively. Subjects were monitored for safety and neutralizing antibodies by pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA50) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50).

Results: While 98% and 65% of subjects had at least 1 local or systemic solicited adverse event (AE), respectively, most AEs were mild or moderate; no related serious AEs were detected. Cohorts 2, 3, and 4 had higher seroconversion rates than cohort 1 and seropositivity of at least 80% by day 197, sustained through day 337. PsVNA50 geometric mean titers were highest for cohort 4 on and after day 197.

Conclusions: This first-in-human candidate HPS vaccine trial demonstrated that an ANDV DNA vaccine was safe and induced a robust, durable immune response. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT03682107.

Keywords: Andes; DNA vaccine; hantavirus; hantavirus pulmonary syndrome; needle-free injection.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Clinical Trial, Phase I

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • DNA
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome*
  • Humans
  • Immunogenicity, Vaccine
  • Orthohantavirus*
  • Vaccines, DNA* / adverse effects


  • Vaccines, DNA
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • DNA
  • Antibodies, Viral

Associated data