Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a condition characterized by a tumor mass of myeloid blasts in any site of the body other than the bone marrow, with or without acute myeloid leukemia. A 93-year-old man underwent laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy with D1 lymphadenectomy for advanced gastric cancer. Other than metastatic foci of gastric cancer cells, some dissected lymph nodes showed destructive architecture with proliferation of small- to medium-sized atypical hematopoietic cells. Those cells were focally positive for naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase. Immunohistochemically, positive results were obtained for CD4, CD33, CD68 (KP1), Iba-1, lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, and PU.1, with focally positive results for CD13, CD14, CD68 (PGM1), CD163, and CD204, and negative results for AE1/AE3, CD1a, CD3, CD20, and S-100 protein. These results suggested MS with phenotypically myelomonocytic differentiation. We report a rare case of MS incidentally found in specimens resected for other purposes. Careful diagnosis and consideration of differential diagnoses including MS using an adequate panel of antibody markers for dissected lymph nodes is warranted.
Keywords: gastric cancer; lymph node; myeloid sarcoma; stomach.