Intrauterine adhesion (IUA) can occur after trauma to the basal layer of the endometrium, contributing to severe complications in females, such as infertility and amenorrhea. To date, the proposed therapeutic strategies are targeted to relieve IUA, such as hysteroscopic adhesiolysis, Foley catheter balloon, and hyaluronic acid injection have been applied in the clinic. However, these approaches showed limited effects in alleviating endometrial fibrosis and thin endometrium. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can offer the potential for endometrium regeneration owing to reduce inflammation and release growth factors. On this basis, MSCs have been proposed as promising methods to treat intrauterine adhesion. However, due to the drawbacks of cell therapy, the possible therapeutic use of extracellular vesicles released by stem cells is raising increasing interest. The paracrine effect, mediated by MSCs derived extracellular vehicles (MSC-EVs), has recently been suggested as a mechanism for their therapeutic properties. Here, we summarizes the main pathological mechanisms involved in intrauterine adhesion, the biogenesis and characteristics of extracellular vesicles, explaining how these vesicles could provide new opportunities for MSCs.
Keywords: Endometrium; Extracellular vesicles; Intrauterine adhesion; Mesenchymal stem cells.