Dynamic interplay between available resources and implementation climate across phases of implementation: a qualitative study of a VA national population health tool

Implement Sci Commun. 2023 Jun 29;4(1):74. doi: 10.1186/s43058-023-00460-0.


Background: Available resources within an organization can determine the implementation success of an intervention. However, few studies have investigated how the required resources change over the phases of implementation. Using stakeholder interviews, we examined the changes in and interactions between available resources and implementation climate in the implementation and sustainment phases of a national implementation effort for a population health tool.

Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of the interviews with 20 anticoagulation professionals at 17 clinical sites in the Veterans Health Administration health system about their experiences with a population health dashboard for anticoagulant management. Interview transcripts were coded using constructs from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and according to the phase of implementation (pre-implementation, implementation, and sustainment) as defined by the VA Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) Roadmap. We analyzed the factors that may determine successful implementation by examining the co-occurrence patterns between available resources and implementation climate across different implementation phases. To illustrate the variations in these determinants across phases, we aggregated and scored coded statements using a previously published CFIR scoring system (- 2 to + 2). Key relationships between available resources and implementation climate were identified and summarized using thematic analysis.

Results: The resources necessary to support the successful implementation of an intervention are not static; both the quantity and types of resources shift based on the phases of the intervention. Furthermore, increased resource availability does not guarantee the sustainment of intervention success. Users need different types of support beyond the technical aspects of an intervention, and this support varies over time. Specifically, available resources in the form of technological support and social/emotional support help users establish trust in a new technological-based intervention during the implementation phase. Resources that foster and maintain collaboration between users and other stakeholders help them stay motivated during sustainment.

Conclusions: Our findings highlight the dynamic nature of available resources and their impacts on the implementation climate across different phases of implementation. A better understanding of the dynamics of available resources over time from the users' perspectives will allow the adaptation of resources to better meet the needs of the intervention stakeholders.

Keywords: Available resources; Implementation climate; Technology-based intervention.