Hypoferremia of inflammation: Innate host defense against infections

Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2024 Jan:104:102777. doi: 10.1016/j.bcmd.2023.102777. Epub 2023 Jun 21.


Iron is an essential nutrient for microbes, plants and animals. Multicellular organisms have evolved multiple strategies to control invading microbes by restricting microbial access to iron. Hypoferremia of inflammation is a rapidly-acting organismal response that prevents the formation of iron species that would be readily accessible to microbes. This review takes an evolutionary perspective to explore the mechanisms and host defense function of hypoferremia of inflammation and its clinical implications.

Keywords: Ferroportin; Hepcidin; Interleukin-6; Non-transferrin bound iron; Nutritional immunity.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Hepcidins*
  • Inflammation*
  • Iron


  • Hepcidins
  • Iron