Etiopathogenesis of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO)

Prog Retin Eye Res. 2023 Sep:96:101193. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2023.101193. Epub 2023 Jul 1.


Primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction, or PANDO, is a common adult lacrimal drainage disorder. The current treatment modality of dacryocystorhinostomy to bypass the obstructed nasolacrimal duct has excellent outcomes. However, the understanding of the disease etiopathogenesis needs to be revisited. There are not many studies that specifically assessed any hypothesis or ones that convincingly put forth the presumed or confirmed interpretations regarding the PANDO pathogenesis or the mechanisms or pathways involved therein. Histopathological evidence points to recurrent inflammation of the nasolacrimal duct, subsequent fibrosis, and the resultant obstruction. The disease etiopathogenesis is considered multifactorial. Several implicated suspects include anatomical narrowing of the bony nasolacrimal duct, vascular factors, local hormonal imbalance, microbial influence, nasal abnormalities, autonomic dysregulation, surfactants, lysosomal dysfunction, gastroesophageal reflux, tear proteins, and deranged local host defenses. The present work reviewed the literature on the etiopathogenesis of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) to gain insights into the present state of the understanding and the high-value translational implications of precisely decoding the disease etiology.

Keywords: Etiopathogenesis; Lacrimal; Nasolacrimal duct obstruction; PANDO; Tears; lacriome.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Dacryocystorhinostomy* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Lacrimal Duct Obstruction* / etiology
  • Lacrimal Duct Obstruction* / metabolism
  • Nasolacrimal Duct* / metabolism
  • Nasolacrimal Duct* / pathology
  • Risk Factors