Fast Acting, Dry Powder, Needle-Free, Intranasal Epinephrine Spray: A Promising Future Treatment for Anaphylaxis

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2023 Oct;11(10):3047-3054. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2023.06.044. Epub 2023 Jun 30.


Background: Epinephrine intramuscular (IM) autoinjector is a life-saving drug for the emergency treatment of immediate-type allergic reactions (type I). Nevertheless, it is sometimes applied incorrectly or underused because of short shelf life, high costs, fear of use, or inconvenience of carrying. FMXIN002, a nasal powder spray of epinephrine, was developed as a needle-free alternative.

Objective: To compare epinephrine pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety after the administration of the FMXIN002 nasal spray versus autoinjector.

Methods: An open-label trial was performed in 12 adults with seasonal allergic rhinitis without asthma. Epinephrine pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety were compared between FMXIN002 (1.6 mg and 3.2 mg) administered intranasally with/without a nasal allergen challenge and IM (0.3 mg) EpiPen.

Results: FMXIN002 3.2 mg, administered after a nasal allergen challenge, displayed a shorter Tmax than EpiPen (median: 2.5 minutes vs 9.0 minutes, statistically nonsignificant [NS]) and a significantly shorter time when the measured analyte concentration is 100 pg/mL during the absorption phase pg/mL (median: 1.0 minutes vs 3.0 minutes for FMXIN002, P < .02). Moreover, FMXIN002 3.2 mg administered after the challenge test has resulted in a doubling of the maximal measured plasma analyte concentration over the sampling period (1110 vs 551 pg/mL, NS); area under the curve from 0 to 8 hours was 56% higher (672 vs 431 hours pg/mL, compared with EpiPen, NS). Pharmacodynamic response was comparable at all treatments. FMXIN002 was well tolerated, and treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were mild, local, and resolved spontaneously. No AEs were reported after the administration of EpiPen in our study. FMXIN002 was stable for 2 years at room temperature conditions. However, variability in the pharmacokinetics (expressed in coefficient of variation) is high. Having a prior nasal allergen challenge results in a substantial increase and speed of absorption.

Conclusions: Intranasal absorption of dry powder epinephrine is faster than EpiPen offering a clinical advantage in the short therapeutic window for the treatment of anaphylaxis. The FMXIN002 product offers a needle-free, pocket-size, safe, user-friendly, and stable alternative to epinephrine autoinjectors.

Trial registration: NCT04696822.

Keywords: Anaphylaxis; Bioavailability; Epinephrine; Intranasal; Powder; Spray.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Adult
  • Allergens / therapeutic use
  • Anaphylaxis* / drug therapy
  • Epinephrine / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Powders / therapeutic use


  • Allergens
  • Epinephrine
  • Powders

Associated data